in the subjects of the Russian Federation embody representation of the people and carry out legislative functions
, passing constitutions (regulations), laws and other legal acts, approve the budget. Their position within the system of the governmental bodies is determined by a principle of separation of powers, which is fixed in all constitutions and regulations. However, in questions of the competence and especially in relations with the executive authority legislative (representative) bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation differ. Differences concern both the forms of legislative process organization and the procedure of consideration of questions.
Confrontational issues between legislative and executive authorities arise periodically in several regions and then the legislature in every possible way interferes with activities of the administration, coming up to the stage of political struggle emphasizing its independence.
But in time of quiet the role of these bodies seems to be less evident owing to the fact that the crucial questions of the state life are regulated by the federal law while in all essential regional issues executive authority dominates. However this in no degree weakens the fundamental value of the bodies of people's representation for the democratic organization of the government.
The most widespread common names of the representative bodies of the republics are: the State Council, the State Assembly, the National Assembly, the Legislative Assembly, Parliament
. Several republics call their representative bodies in view of national terminology (the National Khural in Buryatiya and Kalmykia, the Supreme Khural - Parliament in Tyva, Khalna Gulam - the National Assembly in Ingushetia, etc.)
The Constitutions assign them as the supreme legislative and representative bodies of the governments, and resolutions of these bodies are sometimes given the supreme validity over the territories of the republics even in spite of the fact that the constitutional order of the Russian Federation proclaims superiority of the Constitution of the Russian Federation over all the territory of the state.
The representative bodies in the republics are elected through general, equal and direct elections. As a rule, a citizen of at least 21 years who has the right to participate in elections and has lived in the republic during a certain period of time may be elected a deputy. Terms of office of the parliaments change within the limits of 4-5 years.
The representative bodies of the republics are mainly one-chamber
. Two-chamber parliaments exist in Bashkortostan (the House of Representatives and the Legislative Chamber), Karelia (the Chamber of the Republic and the House of Representatives), Kabardino-Balkaria (the Council of the Republic and the Council of Representatives), Sakha (the Chamber of the Republic and the House of Representatives).
of the parliaments is determined by the Constitutions and legislation of the republics, and, hence, defined on the basis of rates of representation corresponding to the size of the territory and population of each republic.
of representative bodies of the republics include the chairman and his deputies elected by the parliament or the chamber, and some other persons (in Sakha, for example, the Permanent Secretary of the Chamber). In several republics the presidium of parliament is also elected, which includes the Chairperson, his deputies and the chairmen of the committees of parliament.
Deputies form committees and commissions, which consider bills, carry out control of execution of laws and other resolutions of parliament. Deputies also enter different auditing, mandatory and other special commissions.
Territories, oblasts and other subjects of the Russian Federation.
The representative system of these subjects of the Federation does not fundamentally differ from those of the republics, that is, the role of legislative bodies within the system of the government, their relations to the head of the administration (executive power), the order of formation and work are similar or much alike. But there are also some slight differences.
All basic questions of organization and activity of the legislature of the subjects of the Russian Federation are regulated by laws and regulations. The names of the legislature are various (the State Duma, the Duma, the Oblast Duma, the Assembly of Deputies, The Municipal Duma (Moscow), the Legislative Assembly
, etc.). In Moscow the Duma simultaneously is the representative body of the municipality. All these parliaments are one-chamber and elected through general, equal and direct votes. Common term of office equals 4 years.
Competence of legislature is rather wide, it includes questions of organization of the government and local self-government, economic and social development, etc.
Internal organization and operating procedure of legislature of territories, oblasts and other subjects of the Russian Federation practically does not differ from republican legislative bodies. They also form standing committees and commissions, elect the chairman and his deputies, etc. Their legislative acts are obligatory for all citizens, officials, organizations, enterprises and establishments in the territory of a certain subject of the Russian Federation.