in the subjects of the Russian Federation plays the leading role in the system of the governmental bodies, it has large powers and is regulated more precisely than the executive power in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Though in the constitutions and regulations of RF subjects the chapters containing the description of this branch of power often follow those of legislature, the executive power is inseparably related with the powers of the head of the state, and is not limited by execution of laws only, so, its political value exceeds the value of legislature.
Formation of the system of executive authorities of republic, territory, oblast and other subjects of the Russian Federation is regulated by the constitution and other standard acts which determine the legal status of republic, territory, oblast as a subjects of the Russian Federation, the legal status and organization of interaction of authorities. These acts are constitutions, regulations of territories, oblasts, schemes of administration, laws, and also regulations on certain executive bodies of the republics, territories, oblasts, approved by the head of the executive power of the subject of the Russian Federation.
As the Constitution of the Russian Federation considers republics as states, constitutions of the republics establish the post of the head of the state: "the president"
, "the head of the republic"
or "the head of the state".
The post of the president exists in Adygeya, Bashkortostan, Buryatiya, Kalmykia, Kabardino-Balkariya, Ingushetia, Maria El, Sakha (Yakutia), Northern Ossetia - Alania, Tatarstan, Tyva, Chuvashia.
According to the executive power organization and coordination with the head of the republic it is possible to distinguish the following basic types of executive power structure:
1. The government is the executive authority subject to the president of the republic (the head of the republic) though it is also responsible to parliament. (Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Kalmykia, etc.) .
In this group of republics the government actually works under a direct supervision of the head of the state.
2. The head of the state heads the system of the executive power and is the Chairman of the Government (the Republic of Komi, Buryatiya).
In this group of republics there is a merge of the functions of the head of the state and the head of the government within one post.
3. Formation of the Government and organization of the executive power are carried out by collective bodies
(Dagestan and some others).
Territories, oblasts and other subjects of the Russian Federation.
As well as republics; territories, oblasts and other subjects of the Russian Federation form independently the system of executive authorities within their territories. The legal base for this is constituted by regulations and laws passed by own representative bodies and legal acts issued by the heads of administrations.
Unlike the republics, many territories and oblasts are governed not only by regulations, but also by the so-called scheme of administration
, which is called to provide complex management of the subject of the Russian Federation in all major issues. The scheme includes the list of subjects and objects of management, characteristic of the executive bodies functions and the order of their interrelation, the procedure of decision-making, etc.
The functions of the executive power are carried out throughout the territory of the subject of the Russian Federation by the system of executive bodies headed by their respective administrations.
The system of executive authorities is formed by three basic groups of bodies:
The bodies which form the administration head machinery;
Administrative boards, committees, departments and other administration services of double subordination with prevalence of the administration head authority;
Territorial bodies of the federal ministries and departments included into the system of executive authorities of the subject of the Russian Federation with clear-cut vertical subordination.
Among the tasks of administration are: maintenance of the Russian Federation Constitutional order, validity of legislation, decrees of the President of the Russian Federation, regulations and standard acts of the Government of the Russian Federation, management of the local authorities, representation of the interests of the territory in federal bodies of authority.
The administration consists of the head of the administration, "governor"
, in Moscow - the mayor, and his deputies, the heads of numerous administrative structures. In previous years the head of the administration was designated and released by the President of the Russian Federation, but nowadays the nominees for this position are voted by population (in the majority of the subjects of the Russian Federation), or by the legislature.