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Period of Appanage Principalities
 
 Preconditions for political fragmentation
 In the middle of the XII century the Old Russian State split into twelve independent principalities. This was a political of the further development of feudalism, strengthening of feudal landed property, establishing of feudal rent as a mean of peasantry operation. Decrease of the economic role of the 'Way from Varangians to Greeks" passing through Kiev, discontinuance of enriching aggressive military campaigns of Kiev princes weakened the value of Kiev as a political and economic centre of Russian Lands.
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 Vladimir-Suzdal Princedom
 Vladimir-Suzdal Princedom is a typical sample of a Russian princedom of the period of feudal fragmentation. It occupying vast territory - from the Northern Dvina to the Oka and from the sources of the Volga up to its junction with the Oka. In the course of time Vladimir-Suzdal Russia became the centre around which Russian lands united and new Russian centralized state was born. It was the territory of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality where Moscow was founded. The growth of importance of this large princedom was highly contributed by the fact that local princes received the Grand Prince's title. And all the princes of Vladimir-Suzdal State, the descendants of Vladimir Monomah - from Jury Dolgoruky (1125-1157) to Daniel of Moscow (1276-1303) possessed this title.
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 Galich-Volhynia Princedom
 Southwest Russian princedoms - Vladimir-Volhynia and Galich entered Kiev Russia in the end of the X century, but the policy of grand Kiev princes was hardly approved by local noblemen. And from the end of the XI century the struggle for independence began in spite of the fact that Volhynia had no own princely dynasty and was traditionally closely bound with Kiev, which sent own deputies to Volhynia.
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 Novgorod and Pskov Feudal Republics
 Novgorod is one of the most ancient centres of Russia. After formation of the Old Russian State Novgorod Lands were administrated by a prince sent from Kiev. However since the beginning of the XII century Novgorod management got peculiar character. Further strengthening of feudal landed property, absence of the princely domain, transformation of Novgorod into the centre of trade with the Western Europe all that made Novgorod strong and economically independent from Kiev. Novgorod gained the right to elect own Posad head and archbishop. In middle of the XII century Novgorod became a republic. Novgorod Republic existed till 1478 when Novgorod at last entered the Moscow State.
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