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Vasily IV Ivanovich Shuysky

Василий IV Иванович Шуйский Vasily IV Ivanovich Shuysky (1606-1610)

Prince, since 1584 - boyar;
Russian tsar (1606-1610);
Parents: the descendant of Dmitry Konstantinovich Suzdal's in the eighth degree;
grandson of Andrey Shuysky;
son of Ivan Andreevich Shuysky.
Wife (since 17.01.1608) - princess Maria Petrovna Buynosova-Rostovskaya, was admitted to the veil in 1610; childless.

The way to the throne.

In 1591 headed the court of inquiry on death case of tsarevitch Dmitry Ivanovich in Uglich. In the time of tsar Fyodor Ivanovich was condemned on accusation of high treason and sent into exile. Headed the secret opposition to Boris Godunov, underwent new prosecutions. Supported pseudo-Dmitry, then organized a plot against him (probably, supposed), for what in July 1605 was sentenced by the cathedral court to the death penalty, but was pardoned by pseudo-Dmitry under pressure of boyar Duma. Headed new, wider boyar plot, which resulted in overthrow of pseudo-Dmitry.

During the life of pseudo-Dmitry I boyars - conspirators secretly promised an imperial crown to Vladislav, the son of Polish king Sigizmund III. Beating of the Polish mercenaries in Moscow during mutiny resulted in that the question of passing the throne to the foreign king was no longer relevant. Struggle for authority at any moment might cause distemper. " Started mutiny in Moscow with many boyars, - a contemporary wrote down, - and many claimed to reigning ". Shuiskys and Golitsyns, Mstislavskys and Romanovs contested for the crown. " Of the noble, - the Polish witness noted, - everyone wished to reign: the last, in their turn, would like to share imperial incomes, thus declined to the idea, that the empire should be divided into different princedoms " (Nemoyevsky S. Notes p.102). Plans on convocation of electoral Zemsky cathedral were not fulfilled.


Eventually the throne passed to Vasily Shuysky, the representative of the most notable (after suppression of the imperial Rurikid dynasty) families in Russia. Shuyskys were also of Rurikid though descended from the younger branch of Yaroslavichi, namely from Andrey Yaroslavich, younger brother of Alexander Nevsky.

Reign

Having become the king, V.I.Shuysky proposed as patriarchy the Kazan metropolitan Germogen (approximately1530-1612), the person of amazing destiny and exceptional resistance, the violent supporter of orthodoxy. Germogen came out against the oath of Russian boyars to the Polish king Sigizmund III, called for revolt against the Polish aggressors. Poles cloistered him in dungeon of Chudov monastery in the Kremlin where he died of starvation.

In 1606 under V.I.Shuysky's order the remains of true Dmitry, son of Ivan the Terrible were transferred from Uglich to Moscow. At opening of the coffin it was found out, that for 15 years the remains were not touched by decay. Relics were recognized miraculous; many patients were cured by the only touch to the coffin. In the same year the remains of Boris Godunov, his wife and son were transferred to the Trinity-Sergiyev monastery.

Shuysky suppressed country revolt headed by I.I.Bolotnikov (1606-1607). Struggling against Polish intervention and pseudo-Dmitry II, he entered the union with Sweden, which resulted in Swedish intervention.

March 12, 1610 voevode M.V.Skopin-Shuysky (1586-1610), whom V.I.Shuysky owed the victory over I.Bolotnikov's army and clearing of Moscow from the siege of pseudo-Dmitry II, returned to Moscow. In the mind of people and many boyars (especially provincial) Mikhail Vasilyevich was, despite the young age, the most suitable candidate for the throne. In few days he suddenly died; the rumour asserted, that he was poisoned by Ekaterina, Dmitry Shuysky's wife, daughter of Malyuta Skuratov. V.I.Shuysky lost, perhaps, the strongest and the most true supporter.


V.I.Shuysky's weakness and his inability to change the situation resulted in that in July 17, 1610 he was deposed by boyars and together with his wife violently made to take monastic vows. As there was no candidate for the throne amidst boyars, who might suit everybody (at least, the majority), the boyars government, named "Semiboyarshina", was formed.

Subsequently, Vasily Ivanovich Shuysky with brothers Dmitry and Ivan was given up to Poles and died in captivity in Poland.




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